Category Archives: Next Generation Development

Should Junior Generation Family Members Get Extra Vacation Time?

Kelly LeCouvie

Many of our clients develop a family employment policy as part of continuity planning. Some of the components of this policy articulate the circumstances under which family members will be hired, compensated, appraised, promoted, and terminated. And often we are told that the family business must remain a meritocracy, where family members earn their positions, and should be treated the same as non-family employees.

This philosophy seems appropriate when often there is much at stake and all employees need to be competent and held accountable. Also, non-family employees want to see that there is opportunity for them, even when their last name is not on the door. Family businesses should be run professionally in order to perpetuate the business through future generations.

That said there are times when exceptions to employment protocol might, and even should be made. Vacation time is one topic that often comes up when next generation family members join the business. They are often just starting their careers and take a position that offers two weeks vacation. However in some cases family members are given one or two additional paid weeks vacation. Senior management permits this for a number of reasons that are in fact, defendable:

  • The family may have meetings about the business while they are on vacation.
  • Junior generation family members are often expected to take courses or attend conferences that are family-business related. These courses often take place on weekends.
  • Family members are often invited to weddings and other events hosted by co-workers or family business associates, that require travel on weekends. Often junior generation members are strongly encouraged by their parents and/or senior management to attend these events.
  • There are often ceremonies and celebrations that are business related, and family members are expected to attend as ambassadors of the business. These events often take them away from their families if travel is required.
  • Community events sometimes require representatives from the business to attend. These are typically in the evenings and again, are responsibilities that family members take on in addition to their day to day work responsibilities.

While all employees sometimes make commitments on behalf of the business that are outside of regular work hours, often for family members it adds up to several days or even weeks in a year. Therefore, consideration is given to additional vacation time in an effort to make up for the significant investment made to work related commitments.

How one family got started with family education

Steve McClure
Steve McClure

When a large family was moving into its fifth generation of adults, their Family Council knew it was time to invest in future shareholder development.

The family had 20 fifth-generation future owners and beneficiaries who ranged in age from 14 to 39 (plus several more who were younger) and were geographically dispersed. There were also a few members in that same age range from the fourth generation. Some relatives had worked for the company in summer jobs, but most had not. Some attended shareholder meetings and many did not.

Faced with these challenges, the Council asked themselves: “How do you educate the family, and on what?”

They agreed to form an Owner Development Committee consisting of five fifth-generation members and one fourth-generation member. The mission was to research and design their own education program. Over the course of nine months, the committee organized their recommendations into four segments:

1) What should we do together? Seeing as some family members barely knew their cousins, the committee recognized that teamwork development was necessary to become a unified shareholder group. They decided to set aside one day prior to the annual shareholders’ meeting to conduct group programs. In turn, this would naturally increase attendance for the shareholder meetings. Programs would be oriented toward the whole group, but the day would also have three breakout sessions with age-appropriate content aimed (1) at the teens, (2) the college-aged group and (3) the older cousins. Programming would include tours, management presentations and education about the company. There would also be projects, plans and decisions requiring collaboration, leadership, organization and accountability. By learning and accomplishing projects together, they reasoned that teamwork would develop as they achieved their desired educational goals.

2) What body of knowledge and skills do we need to master? The committee identified subject areas based on their research drawn from attending family business seminars, speaking with other business families and reading related materials. Skill and knowledge areas included financial statements, investing, communication and negotiating skills, knowledge of their business and industry, family values and history, business strategy, and an understanding of the role of the board, shareholders, family governance and management.

3) What education should we provide and what should individuals learn on their own?  Next, the committee defined what individuals are expected to learn on their own (primarily from books, articles and seminars), what will be provided to the group (customized programs presented by other business families, speakers and trainers), or made available to attend (seminars, courses and training programs). For the seminars and other resources, they established rules and procedures to address education costs and set expectations about expenses covered by family members.

 4) How do we implement?  Understanding that implementing all the educational initiatives at once would be overwhelming, they designed a multi-year, roll out strategy. The first step was introducing the one day, pre-shareholder meeting to inform everybody of the curriculum and obtain buy-in.

The committee presented their recommendations to the Family Council, and then to the entire family at a family assembly meeting where they received unanimous support.

An imperfect gift

Chris Eckrich
Chris Eckrich

Over the years in which I have consulted with families, I have observed an important, and encouraging, pattern in numerous families whereby the senior generation – despite substantial tensions and challenges in working together – offers the junior generation an opportunity to have relationships unspoiled by the challenges of their parents.

It goes something like this…

The senior generation, often a sibling generation, struggles with managing the emotional aspects of being in a family business together. These struggles are not uncommon, and often simply due to the pressures of being a family together, working with their parents and facing the stresses of the day. Over time, they become overly sensitive to comments or actions that were not intended to cause pain but do nonetheless.

It would be typical that these frustrations would turn into toxicity, which is then shared with their children – the next generation. But in many families something beautiful happens. The senior generation members, recognizing the value of their collective children building supportive and nurturing relationships, suppress their own frustrations and insulate the next generation from daily dramas, allowing the junior generation emotional space to become friends and build relationships. The result is a group of cousins who enjoy their relationships and their time together, often independent of the parents’ participation. In these cases, the collective sense of family created among the cousin group is a powerful force.

Being in a family is sometimes messy and intense. As human beings, we are not perfect.  Many of us have emotional nerve endings close to the surface. We get hurt. We want to attribute the source of pain and frequently look outward for causes. In the worst of cases, we blame others for the entire balance of the messy relationship and are blind to our own part in the drama. In our frustration, we may even disparage our family members to our children, and even to their children.  This creates division within the family.

When the individuals within a generation commit to nurturing the junior generation despite their own pains and the complications associated with the complexities of being in an enterprising family, a great gift is truly given.

Five principles of personal wealth management

Norbert Schwarz
Norbert Schwarz

Recently a business-owning family facing the sale of their business asked me how they might prepare the family to face the issues of sudden wealth. Their primary concern was for their children and how this major change might affect them.

Over the years of serving as a banker, investment advisor and family business consultant, five principles of personal wealth management came to mind. These principles apply to adults as well as children and have been confirmed by the test of time for families of wealth and those just managing to get by.

The first, and most important, is to learn to live below your means.

Number two is to maintain a budget. Whether it relates to an allowance or a paycheck, the old adage “you can’t manage what you can’t measure” is just as true in managing your finances as it is in managing your company.

The third principle involves establishing a regular saving discipline. Save regularly, and when possible, save on a tax-effective basis.

Number four is to exercise financial patience in investing. Don’t try to time the market.

Finally, from a life as well as an investment perspective, understand the benefits of balance. In investments, it means asset allocation and periodically balancing assets according to the targeted allocation. Seeking balance in everything you do in life can make life’s transitions more rewarding.

A distinction among successful families: The value of values

David Lansky
David Lansky

Family leaders must be concerned with the tactical elements of a transition:

  • What the estate plan will look like.
  • The details of a leadership or ownership succession plan.
  • How best to develop the next generation.

But in my experience, families who have been most successful in continuity planning distinguish themselves not solely by the quality of their planning. An additional key feature of their success is their commitment to live by a set of values.

One family I know were wrestling with how to divide shared assets when it became clear that separate branches needed to pursue different business goals. They successfully arrived at a solution that preserved both family and business by establishing right from the outset two guiding values: Preserving good family relationships and having senior family members be proud of their process.

If you are contemplating a transition, what are the values that will guide your process?

The natural fit of emotional intelligence in family business (Part 2 of 2)

Kent Rhodes
Kent Rhodes

In my last blog post, I shared how Emotional Intelligence (EI) has become a core piece of the discussion about effective business leadership in recent years. I describe it as “the ability to monitor and understand the impact of emotions – from one’s self and others – on one’s own behavior and others’ behavior, all in a way that guides wise decision making.”

As a part of building this discussion, I am highlighting some recent research conducted by one of my graduate students at Pepperdine University, Emily Spivey, and how important it is for family businesses to be able to build in these insights as a part of good continuity planning for subsequent generations.

Emily was curious about the role emotional intelligence plays in how successful entrepreneurs build an organization from the ground up. The results of her work revealed Seven EI Qualities Important in for Entrepreneurial Success:

  1. Reading the room. Described by one study participant as the ability to understand “interpersonal dynamics that are taking place in a group or social context,” or by another as “understanding what people are experiencing at any given moment,” the importance of “reading a room” was identified as a characteristic of an emotionally intelligent leader necessary to effectively build an organization.
  2. Decision making. EI plays a role in the entrepreneur’s ability to make decisions, often quickly, creatively, and decisively, usually in the midst of uncertainty or under pressure. It even included their ability to accurately anticipate the responses and reactions of people around them and to adjust decisions as necessary.
  3. Hard leadership. EI plays a role in being able to lead in a crisis, including leading through brokenness, conflict or stress. In relationship to the uncertain and often chaotic nature of starting up an organization, study respondents talked about not only having the capacity to lead through hardship going on with other people, but the necessity of leading through their own personal challenges or conflicts as they came up. Managing and tolerating stress was also mentioned multiple times as key to effective leadership in the context of “hard leadership.”
  4. Risk taking. Another theme identified was the ability to express entrepreneurial leadership and take risks themselves, while simultaneously inspiring others to take risks as well. This role seems to be particularly important in terms of gaining financial stability by securing investors, loans, and financial security.
  5. Leadership in self and others. EI plays a role in being able to build leadership skills in others while simultaneously sustaining one’s own effective leadership over the long term. According to the entrepreneurs in the study, effective leadership includes both empowering and cultivating leadership in those around you and also having the self-perception to know your own leadership limitations or signs of burnout, and to course correct when mistakes were identified.
  6. Interaction. EI plays a role in being able to interact with others in a way that builds the confidence of people in their various roles and develops other leaders. The study respondents emphasized the importance of strong interpersonal relationships in starting the new venture.
  7. Trust. EI plays a role in trusting and building trust. This role of EI was discussed as an expression of emotionally intelligent leadership and also as an outcome. Emotionally effective leaders both trust themselves, and also inspire and build trust in others.

The natural fit of emotional intelligence in family business (Part 1 of 2)

Kent Rhodes
Kent Rhodes

I’ve always been fascinated with the internal workings of leadership in family businesses and how founders of a successful family enterprise seem to have so much in common around their understanding of people. One of the roles I play in my life is that of a research advisor to graduate students at Pepperdine University. This means I see first hand how smart students explore and test interesting questions and how their discoveries can be applied to all kinds of organizations, especially to family businesses.

One of those recent studies by graduate student Emily Spivey explored the role that Emotional Intelligence (EI) plays in how effective entrepreneurs grow an organization from the ground up. I got excited about the results and implications for how EI and “entrepreneurialism” might be built and passed along as a part of effective continuity planning in the family firm. This is the first of two blog posts in which I’ll share the study along with the seven ways emotional intelligence can be perpetuated in family firms for future generations.

In recent years, emotional intelligence has become a core piece of the discussion about effective leadership in business. Essentially, it the ability to monitor and understand the impact of emotions – from one’s self and others – on one’s own behavior and others’ behavior, all in a way that guides wise decision making.

It will come as no surprise to anyone affiliated with a successful family business that this study verified previous research results (Barczak, Iassk, and Mulki, 2010; Cross and Travaglione, 2003, etc.) that there are clear links to the health, survivability, and overall effectiveness of entrepreneurial ventures to the personal qualities and leadership capabilities of the founder. It also bore out the notion that effective entrepreneurs naturally create an environment or culture of trust which fosters everyone collaborating more naturally, developing creative solutions, and achieving better overall results (more about that in the next post).

Interestingly enough, when asked about their understanding of emotional intelligence during the study, respondents were vague about their ideas. They tended to associate EI with “soft skills” and yet as they described their day-to-day work, the importance of using those skills became clearer. As a result, the group identified seven qualities that are important in their own leadership effectiveness when building an organization from the ground up.

They include:

  • Reading the Room
  • Decision Making
  • Hard Leadership
  • Risk Taking
  • Leadership of Self and Others
  • Interaction with Others
  • Trust Building

In my next post, I’ll share how these seven qualities apply to family businesses and the continuity of building “entrepreneurialism” in subsequent generations.

Defining what’s right for your generation

Deb Houden
Deb Houden

“We’re doing it that way because that is what Dad wanted. And for as long as he is alive, that’s how we’re going to do it. It was Dad’s dream, he built it, he gave it to us, and that’s what’s important. We have to honor Dad.”

The statement silenced the rest of the siblings who were trying to have a discussion around the development of a shareholders agreement. The agreement was a “last man standing” contract where upon the death of the shareholder, their shares were retired and the remaining owners had a larger stake in the company. The sibling group of eight were in their 50s and 60s, and contemplating their own future. Some of the siblings worked in the company but most did not. One of the siblings had been diagnosed with a chronic illness that had the potential to shorten her life, and she wanted to understand the consequences of her ownership for her children. She understood the children were to receive the financial gain for the sale of the stock back to the company, but one of her children also worked for the company and hoped to become part owner one day.

While there were many facets to the discussion, I stopped the conversation and asked all of the siblings to step back a bit. Why would their dad want the agreement to read like that? What would be the purpose of formulating such an agreement? The fourth child answered, “Because he wanted the decision making to be consolidated so no one who was running the company would have to ask anyone else for permission to do something.”

I asked the remaining siblings if that was true. They all nodded in agreement. I proceeded to ask why their dad would have felt so strongly about consolidating decision making. Then another sibling told me the story of their dad, his father and his uncles. It was a story of destructive work habits and entitlement that strapped the company and angered the siblings’ father. He eventually bought everyone out and turned the company around. Their father had a very compelling reason to have the shareholders agreement written in the way that it was. However, it was now time for the siblings to come together to decide what was right for them as a group and their families going forward.

Each generation must navigate their own waters. Each generation must decide what is right for them, and what to pass forward. Each generation must face the tension of what is right for their nuclear family, and what is best for the whole and come together to negotiate a decision. And the successful negotiation can only happen through communication.

Often as consultants we are asked to speak or write on best practices. We are asked to give advice on what works best. The problem with those answers is that in order to be a best practice we must answer, “It depends.” The best answer is that each group must come together to review, to communicate, and to decide together a path that moves the family and the business forward in a constructive way. What is best for one family enterprise may not be the best for another.

I was reminded of this the past week when I listened to a webinar on the next generation and how they need to individuate and differentiate from the family. They need to become their own person and understand their own identity, their own strengths and weaknesses. When they can stand on their own, make their own decisions in a healthy way, these children become an adult who can bring a lot of positives to the family and the business, regardless if they work there or not. It is the same with each generation of a family business. They must understand where they came from, appreciate the hard work of the older generation, but decide what their own strengths and weaknesses are, what they need to do for each other as a whole in order to put their own stamp on the family and the business.

The next time you are in a family meeting, work in individual generations to decide:

  • What are our strengths as a group?
  • What is a potential area that could make us unravel?
  • What do we want our generation to be known for?
  • What happens if we do nothing?

Honor your past and hope for the future, but don’t forget to make (as a group) your own impact on the family business.

Asking and listening…

Dana Telford
Dana Telford

I visited my mother in law last Tuesday. Before I left to drive home, she insisted that I take a sack full of “windfall apples” back to my wife and kids. “Windfall apples?” I thought to myself as we began picking red apples off the lawn. “I’ve never seen Windfall apples in the grocery store. Fuji and Gala and Macintosh and Granny I recognize, but Windfall apples? Are they grown in Chicago or on a windswept tropical island somewhere? She must be confused.”

Had I stopped there, and gone on assuming that I knew more about apples than this mother of 7, grandmother of 18, I would have missed a valuable lesson. She was describing the way the apples had been harvested, not the brand.

I asked her, “What are they called? Windfall apples?” She said, “Yes, they are the ones knocked out of the trees by the wind. My dad used to call them that, so I do as well.”

A light bulb went off in my head – windfall. Like in Monopoly. A windfall is defined as a “sudden unexpected gain or piece of fortune.” I’ve played Monopoly for decades with my siblings, friends and now children, and have never understood the meaning of that word.

Too often in life we forget to ask family members what they know and how they know it and what they believe and why. By listening to their reasons for doing certain things in a certain ways, we can discover, not only more about them, but also more about ourselves. Why does mom put the paper towels on the roll one way versus the other? Why does granddad add water to the pancake batter? Why does Uncle Steve say “a quick nickel is better than a fast dime”?

There are usually very good reasons why people believe what they believe and behave the way they behave. But if we never ask, we’ll never learn. We can gain so much from each other, regardless of age or gender or role in the family. And learning will ultimately help us avoid some of the pitfalls that others have experienced and shape our views of the world and how we want to experience life. It is not uncommon for adult children to take their experiences from younger years and find ways to improve on them. Watching parents struggle with financial challenges, for instance, and living paycheck to paycheck can cause a young adult to focus on discovering ways to ease those challenges in her own future.

Improving our ability to ask “why do you do this or believe that” and listening carefully to the answer will provide greater benefit than simply observing and either dismissing or mimicking behaviors. This is a habit we can begin to instill into future generations. And when one of our children or grandchildren ask us why we ask so many questions and listen so intently to the answer, we’ll know we’ve reached our goal.

Next-Generation Leadership in the Family Enterprise Part 2

Steve Miller
Steve Miller

In a two-part blog post, Family Business Group consultant Stephen P. Miller highlights some key findings from his recently completed research on how nextgeneration family leaders develop leadership skills.

My research on nextgeneration family business leaders demonstrates the importance of family climate on the degree to which nextgeneration family members learn leadership skills.  Ironically, some of the leadership characteristics we often observe in entrepreneurs who build successful family firms may actually work against them in their efforts to prepare the next generation for leadership responsibilities.  The kind of hardcharging authoritative leadership style that may have helped a senior family entrepreneur overcome the significant challenges of establishing a successful family firm negatively affects the development of nextgeneration leaders.  Nextgen family leaders need age and experience appropriate opportunities to practice decision making, take risks, enjoy successes, and recover from failures.  A senior generation leader who makes all the decisions and sets all the rules can unintentionally deny nextgeneration family members the experiences they need to develop their own leadership skills.

The study further suggests that nextgeneration family members interested in playing a leadership role in the family business should consider taking responsibility for their own development of leadership skills, particularly emotional and social intelligence competencies.  If the family climate is one characterized by senior generation leaders who exercise unquestioned authority, nextgen leaders would be well served to suggest or create some area of the business for which they could be responsible and held accountable by others.  If the senior generation refuses to allow it, then the potential nextgeneration leader may be wise to seek experience with genuine responsibility and accountability outside of the family firm.  The research is abundantly clear that shouldering real responsibility is strongly related to emotional and social intelligence competencies demonstrated by the most effective leaders.